The Vilanculos Coastal Wildlife Sanctuary (the Sanctuary) is a 25 000 ha reserve covering both land and sea, situated on the São Sebastião peninsula along the Indian Ocean coast in Mozambique and forms the southern most portion of the Bazaruto Archipelago.
Some of the richest biodiversity in Mozambique is found here and the Sanctuary ranks amongst the top biodiversity "hotspots" in Africa. The reserve encompasses a mosaic of wetlands, mangrove swamps, coral reefs, small islands, tidal mudflats, salt marshes, freshwater lakes, estuaries, tree and scrub forest on the coastal dunes, savannah and miombo woodlands.
Eco-tourism by means of low-density tourism facilities are the foundations for conservation of fauna and flora. An ancillary objective is uplifting the local community by improving social, educational and economic standards. This is being achieved through job creation, building of schools, a primary healthcare centre and houses, cash compensation and the provision of other basic necessities.